Mbishkrimi i Peruxhas shpjegohet vetëm shqip sepse është shkruar shqip

114

Moebel THEMA

  • Mbishkrimi i Peruxhes: Cippus Perusinus

Shkruan Petrit Laze

             Studiues

Pllaka e gurit që shihni në foto, ndodhet në Muzeun Kombëtar të Peruxhias.
Mbishkrimi Etrusk i gdhendur në pllake, daton në shek. III – II P.E.S.
U gjend në kodrën San Marko në afërsi të Peruxhias, më 1822.

Mbishkrimi i mësiperm, i transliteruar në alfabetin Shqip:

Pamja ballore
TEURAT. TANNA. LA REZ UL
AME VAHR LAUTN. VELTHINASH E
SHTLA AFUNASH SLELETH KARU
TEZAN FUSHLERI TESNSHTEISH
RASHNESH IPA AMA HEN NAPER
HII VELTHINATHURASH ARASH PE
RASHKEMULMLESKUL ZUKI EN
ESKI EPL TULARU
AULESHI. VELTHINASH ARZNAL KL
ENSHI. THII. THIL SHKUNA. KENU. E
PLK. FELIK LARTHALSH AFUNESH
KLEN THUNHULTHE
FALASH. HIEM FUSHLE. VELTHINA
HINTHA KAPE MUNIKLET MASU
NAPER SHRANKZLTHII FALSHTI V
ELTHINA HUT. NAPER. PENEZSH
MASU. AKNINA. KLEL. AFUNA VEL
THINAMLERZINIA. INTE MAME
R. KNL. VELTHINA ZIA SHATENE
TESNE. EKA. VELTHINATHURASH TH
AURA HELU TESNE RASHNE KEI
TESNSHTEISH RASHNESH HIMTH SHP
ELTHUTA SHKUNA AFUNA MENA
HEN. NAPER. KI KNL HARE UTUSHE

Pamja anësore
VELTHINA SH
ATENA. ZUK
I ENESKI. IP
A. SHPELANE
THI. FULUMH
VA SHPELTHI.
RENETHI ESHT
AK. VELTHINA
AKILUNE.
TURUNE. SHK
UNE. ZEA. ZUK
I. ENESKI. ATH
UMIKSH. AFU
NASH. PENTHN
A. AMA. VELTH
INA. AFUNA
THURUNI. EIN
ZERI UNA. KL
A. THIL THUNH
ULTHL. IH. KA
KEHA. ZIHUH
E

Teksti i deshifruar, në gjuhën Etruske:

1- Te urat tan na la rez ula me vahr.
2- Lautn Velthinash eshtla Afuna sh’slel, eth ka ru te zan fushl, e ri tesn.
3- Sh’te ish Rashnesh i pa ama, hen naper hi i Velthinathurash arash.
4- Perash kem ul, mleskul.
5- Zu ki eneski epl tu laru Auleshi, Velthinash arznal klenshi.
6- Thi i thil shkuna kenu, eplk felik.
7- Larthal, sh’Afunesh klen, thunhul the falash.
8- Hie m’ fushl e Velthina.
9- Hin tha kap, e mu ni klet, ma su.
10- Naper shrank zlthi i falshti Velthina.
11- Hut naper penezsh, ma su.
12- Ak ni na! – klel Afuna.
13- Velthina mler zinia.
14- Inte ma mer knl.
15- Velthina zia, sh’aten e tesne.
16- E ka Velthinathurash! – tha ura he lutes ne Rashne.
17- Ke i tesn, sh’te ish Rashnesh Himth, shpelth uta shkuna; Afuna mena hen.
18- Naper ki knl – hare, utu she Velthina sh’atena.
19- Zu ki eneski i pa shpela ne thi fulumhva.
20- Shpel thi, rene thi.
21- Esht ak Velthina; aki lun, e tu ru ne shku ne Zea.
22- Zu ki eneski: A thu mi ksh Afunash, pen th’na ama Velthina?
23- Afunathur u ni ei n’ zer i una kla, thil thunhulthl.
24- Ih ka keha zihuhe.

Teksti i deshifruar, në gjuhët Etruske dhe Shqipe:

Rreshtat në blu janë në gjuhën Etruske
Rreshtat në të kuq janë në Gegnisht
Rreshtat në të zezë janë në Toskërisht

1-Te urat tan na la rez ula me vahr.
T’urët tan na lan rrez ulë (posht) më varr.
Të urtët tanë, na lanë dritë poshtë në varr.

2-La-utn Velthinash eshtla Afuna sh’slel, eth ka ru te zan fushl e ri tesn.
Eshtrat e Lart-urtni Velthinas, -Afuna sh’siell, edh ka ru te zan pusn (guvn) e ri tesh.
Eshtrat e Lart të Urtit Velthina, -Afuna ç’sjell, dhe ka ruajtur të zënë guvën, e rri tashmë.

3-Sh’te ish Rashnesh i pa ama, hen naper hi i Velthinathurash arash.
Sh’te ish Etrusk i pa qenë, hin naper hir i Velthinas s’art.
Si të ish Etrusk i pa qenë, hyn nëpër hir të trupit të artë të Velthinës.

4-Perash kem ul, mleskul.
Periasht kem ul, mpleksun (mledhun).
Përjashta jemi ulur, bashkë.

5-Zu ki eneski epl tu laru Auleshi, Velthinash arznal klenshi.
Zu ki prifti epr tu lartu Aulesin, birin e ndritun (arsyshm) t’Velthinas.
Zuri ky prifti epër të lëvdojë Aulen, birin e ndritur (arsyshëm) të Velthinës.

6-Thi i thil shkuna kenu, eplk felik.
Thirr e thirr (duke folur) shkun ketu, plak – filik (bir).
Fjalë pas fjale (llaf i llafit) erdhën këtu, plak e bir.

7-Larthal, sh’Afunesh klen, thunhul the falash.
Larthali, diali Afunes, dighion thena fialash.
Larthali, djali i Afunës, dëgjon thënie fjalësh.

8-Hie m’ fushl e Velthina.
Hie m’ pus (guv) e Velthinas.
Hije në guvë e Velthinës.

9-Hin tha kap, e mu ni klet, ma su.
Hin ta kap, e mu ni kret, ama su.
Hyn t’a kapë, e mu në kryet, por s’mund.

10-Naper shrank zlthi i falshti Velthina.
Naper shtankie (shmangie), zathi i folshti Velthina.
Nëpër shmangie, zëthi i fliste Velthina.

11-Hut naper penezsh, ma su.
Hutet naper pamie, ama su.
Hutet nëpër pamje, por s’mund.

12-Ak ni na! -klel Afuna.
A ka na ni! -klith Afuna.
A ka ndonji këtu! – klith Afuna.

13-Velthina mler zinia.
Velthinan e mler (mlon) zinia.
Velthinën e mbulon terri.

14-Inte ma mer knl.
Ende ma mer levizien.
Ende ma mer lëvizjen.

15-Velthina zia, sh’aten e tesne.
Velthina zi, sh’at’her e tesh.
Velthina zi (terr), si at’herë e tani.

16-E ka Velthinathurash! – tha ura, he lutes ne Rashne.
E ka trupi Velthinas! – tha urata, e lutet ne Rashne.
I përket trupit të Velthinës! –tha urata, e lutet në Rashne.

17-Ke i tesn, sh’te ish Rashnesh Himth, shpelth uta shkuna; Afuna mena hen.
Ke i tesh, sh’te ish Hiu (Hyu) Rashnesh, shpellt ata shkun; Afuna mrena hin.
Në çast, si të ish Hyu Rashnesh, te shpella ata shkuan; Afuna hyn brenda.

18-Naper ki knl – hare, utu she Velthina sh’atena.
Naper kët levizie-hare, aty sheh Velthinan si at’hera.
Nëpër këtë lëvizje – hare, aty sheh Velthinën përsëri.

19-Zu ki eneski i pa shpela ne thi fulumhva.
Zu ki prifti i pa yjt ne rrefime (thenie) shpelle.
Zuri ky prifti i pa yjet në thënie (rrëfime) shpelle.

20-Shpel thi, rene thi.
Shpella thir (flet), rene thir (flasin).
Shpella thotë (flet), retë thonë (flasin).

21-Esht ak Velthina; aki lun, e tu ru ne shku ne Zea.
Esht aty Velthina; aty lun, e tu ru ne shku ne Zoti.
Është aty Velthina; aty luan, e duke na ruajtur ne, shkon në zoti.

22-Zu ki eneski: A thu mi ksh Afunash, pen th’na ama Velthina?
Zu ki prifti: A thu mi kush Afunas, pa t’na qe Velθina?
Zuri ky prifti: A mi thotë kush Afunës, pa të na qe Velthina?

23-Afunathur u ni ei n’ zer i una kla, thil thunhulthl.
Afuna u ni e n’za i nia klaie, thirrje tingullt.
Afuna e ndjeu edhe në zër’ i një qarje, thirrje e tingullt.

24-Ih ka keha zihuhe.
I kët kena nzihun (shcru).

The text

1- Te urat tan na la rez ula me vaχr.
2- Lautn Velθinaš eštla Afuna š’slel, eθ ca ru te zan fušl e ri tesn.
3- Š’te iš Rašneš i pa ama, χen naper χi i Velθina-θuraš araš.
4- Peraš cem ul, mlescul.
5- Zu ci enesci epl tu laru Auleši, Velθinaš arznal clenši.
6- Θi i θil šcuna cenu, eplc felic.
7- Larθal, š’Afuneš clen, θunχul θe falaš.
8- Χie m’ fušl e Velθina.
9- Xin θa cap, e mu ni clet, ma su.
10- Naper šranc zlθi i falšti Velθina.
11- Xut naper penezš, ma su.
12- Ac ni na! – clel Afuna.
13- Velθina m’ ler zinia.
14- Inte ma mer cnl.
15- Velθina zia, š’aten e tesne.
16- E ca Velθina-θuraš! – θa ura, χe lutes ne Rašne.
17- Ce i tesn, š’te iš Rašneš Χimθ, špelθ uta šcuna; Afuna mena χen.
18- Naper ci cnl – χare, utu še Velθina š’atena.
19- Zu ci enesci i pa špela ne θi fulumχva.
20- Špel θi, rene θi.
21- Ešt ac Velθina; ac ilun, e tu ru ne šcu ne Zea.
22- Zu ci enesci: A θu mi cš Afunaš, pen θ’na ama Velθina?
23- Afuna-θur u ni ei n’ zer i una cla, θil θunχulθl.

24- Iχ ca ceχa ziχuχe.

And now let’s analyse all the words of the text

I-Te urat tan na la rez ula me vaχr.

1-Te = 1- article: “of”; “to”, etc.
In Albanian: te/të; article used before: both singular and plural nouns; nouns of the genitive case; adjectives; adjective nouns; This article is used also to form the conditional, etc..

2- Urat (te urat) = the righteous ones (def. adj. noun); the nobles (see Etruscan ura nr. 83).
Urat is the def. form of ura (“righteous ones”, “nobles”).
In Gheg Albanian: te urët (or: t’urët) = the righteous ones; the nobles.
In standard Albanian:
të urtët = the righteous ones; the nobles.
i urti = the righteous one (def. adj. noun); the noble one.
The singular form of Etruscan te urat (the righteous ones) might have been “i uri” (the righteous one) which may be the etymology of jury (n).
In Gheg Albanian: urtni = righteousness, correctness, nobility;
In standard Albanian: urtesi = righteousness, nobility, correctness.
In Greek: ορθά = right, straight; ορθή = correct.

3- Tan = our.
“Of our” genitive plural of the first person pronoun. In modern Albanian: tanë.
It’s original form is “te an” (t’an) or “te on” (t’on), (both owner and property are in plural) or:
“i on”, in modern Albanian: “jonë” /jonÉ™/ (the owner is in plural but the property is in singular). Eg: Ion Sea (Ionian Sea) which was called Mare Nostrum (Our Sea) by latins.
In Albanian: Deti Jon which literally means “Our Sea”.
In Gheg Albanian: tan = our.
In standard Albanian: tanë = our.

4- Na = us.
In Albanian it is a proclitic and enclitic form of the personal pronoun (first person, plural), eg: na gatuaj/gatuana = (you, singl.) cook for us!

5- La = left (past tense of Etruscan verb le = let, leave).
In Albanian: la = left – past tense of le/lë = let, leave (third person, singular).
In Etruscan (Pyrgi Tablets): s’e le Itala = (I) don’t leave the Italy.
The past tense of Etruscan verb le = let, leave, – seems to be la in all persons.
In standard Albanian: lëshoj = to let go of, to release.
In Italian: lasciare = to let go of, to release.

6- Rez = ray/s.
In Gheg Albanian: rez/rrez = ray/s.
In standard Albanian: reze/rreze = ray/s.
In Romanian: raze = ray.
This Etruscan word survives in many European languages.
In Albanian rez/rreze;
In Romanian raze;
In English ray;
In Latin radio;
The etymology of Etruscan word rez may be raze (def.: razea), see Etruscan noun Zea (nr. 106), compare with Latin radio (which literally means “Ra God”).

7- Ula = low, down (adv.).
In Gheg Albanian: ulë = down (adv.); low (adv.).
In standard Albanian: 1- ulët = low (adv.); down (adv.); 2- poshtë = down (adv.).

8- Ul = lay (down); to lower; drop (down); sit (down).
In Albanian: ul = lay (down), drop (down); to lower; to sit down.
It’s the root of these Albanian words: ulët = low (adv.); i/e ulët = low (adj.).
Ultësirë = lowland;
In Italian: ultimo; ulna; ultra; etc..

9-m’/ me = in, on, into.
In Gheg Albanian: m’/më = in, on, into.

10-Vaχr = grave.
In Albanian: varr = grave. May be from old Ind. “vrana”.

II- Lautn Velθinaš eštla Afuna š’slel, eθ ca ru te zan fušl e ri tesn.

11- La = 1- high, up; 2- pure.
In Albanian: laj /laj/ = purify, clean (v); lart = high;
In colloquial Albanian: la = up;
Both lart (high) and la (up) were used in Etruscan too.

12- Lautn /lautən/ = highness, noble.
In Italian: lauto = generous; lauda = praise, hymn.
In Etruscan (Tabula Cortonensis): latin = noble, highness.
Ce latina apnal cleniarc! = what an open nobles’ youth (gioventu)!

Velθina = a man’s name;
Velθinaš = of Velthina (Velthina’s).

13- Eštla = 1- remains, bones (pl. of Eštl); 2- the bone (def. of Eštl).
In standard Albanian: eshtra = 1- remains, bones; 2- the bone (def. of eshtër); eshtrat (the bones) = def. of eshtra (bones).
In Gheg Albanian: asht = bone; ashtra = bones (compare with old Ind. asthan-, asthi)

Afuna = a man’s name.

– š = see nr 23 – š.

14- Slel = bring/s.
In Albanian: siell/sjell = bring/s.

15- Eθ = and.
In Gheg Albanian: edh = and.

16- Ca = has.
In Albanian: ka = has.
In Italian: ha = has.
In Greek: έχει = has.

17- Ru = guard, take care of, save.
In Gheg Albanian: tu ru = to guard, to take care of, to save.
In standard Albanian: Ruaj = guard, save, take care of;
Rojë /rojÉ™/ = guard (n); guardsman; caretaker;
Roja /roja/ = def. of rojë;
The English word royal relates to Albanian rojë.
Re = notice, observation.
Etruscan ca ru means has saved/guarded.
Etruscan expression tu ru ce (used in funerary inscriptions) means:
you’ll be saved (in memory).

18- Zan (te zan) = occupied (adj.).
In Gheg Albanian: te zan/zon = occupied;
It’s the etymology of zone (occupation).
In standard Albanian:të zënë = occupied.
Zan/zon/zënë is the p.p. of ze/zë = 1- begin, 2- occupy, own (v); 3- catch.
Albanian Ze is wordroot of Greek Zeus (God); of Albanian zot (god/owner/mr./sir); zanë (goddess, female mythological character); zonjë (mrs./she owner) and zonë (zone); of Romanian Zeu (God) which is the masculine version of Etruascan Zea (the God, fem.).
From that point of view, Greek (pelasgian) Zeus means: beginner; owner, possessor.

19- Fušl /fushÉ™l/ = entrance; cave.
In Albanian: fus/fut = put, insert, infuse, enter;
pus = well (n);
fushë = field (entrance to the other parts of the terrain as it looks from the sea);
fus kokën në ujë = (I) put my head into the water;
Futem në shtëpi = (I) enter the house.
futë = apron;
fustan/fustanellë = fustian, kilt;
In Greek: βυθίζομαι = cave.

20- E = and.
In Italian: e = and;
In Albanian: e = and.

21- Ri = rest/s.
In Albanian: ri/rri = rest/s.
The English word rest means: to relax, sleep or do nothing after a period of activity or because of illness.
The Albanian word ri has the meaning to renew/regenerate.
In Albanian: ri (i ri) = young, new (masc.); re (e re) = young, new (fem.);
rini = youth; rinia = the youth (fem.); ris/rris = grow, rise (first pers. singl.).
This word survives in almost all European languages as a prefix ri- (or re-) meaning again. In Albanian it has the meaning of renew and stands as a wordroot in: roj/rroj = live (v), exist (its original form is rioj = to repeat/renew myself), which is formed by ri and the suffix –oj, as the majority of verbs in Albanian;
It is not by coincidence it’s similarity with the Greek word ροή = flow (n), current.
In Albanian: riedh/rrjedhë = flow (n), current (n) which is formed by ri- and (h)edh = cast (v&n).
Let’s take the Albanian word ris or rris.
Ris/rris = to grow or to rise sb/sth (first person, singular);
La ris (or: lart rris, see Etruscan word la/lart) = to grow up or to rise sb/sth.
In Etruscan: la-ris (n&v) = 1- to grow up, to rise; 2- rise (n); 3- youth; 4- growth.
Laris means (literally) = grow/ing up.
Larisa = def. of laris (fem.).
Larisal = young (adj.); Larisali = 1- the young (boy); 2- boys; larisalt = the boys, etc. (in Tabula Cortonensis there are many words, like: la, lart, lartle, larza, laris, larisa, larisal, larisali, larizak etc.).

22- Tesn = now.
In Gheg Albanian: tesh/tash = now.
In standard Albanian: tani, tash, tanimë, tashmë = now.

III- Š’te iš Rašneš i pa ama, χen naper χi i Velthina-θuraš araš.

23- Š = 1- as, like; 2- that (conj.).
In Gheg Albanian: sh = 1- as ; like; 2- that (conj.);
In standard Albanian: 1- që = that (conj.); 2- si = as; like.
Š’te iš… = like he was… .

24- Iš = was (third person, singular).
In Albanian: ish = was (third person, singular).

25- Rašne = 1- God, 2- Etruria;
Rašna = def. of Rašne (fem.).
In Albanian: Rasenë = Etruria; Rasena = def. of Rasenë.

26-Rašneš = 1- Etruscan (of Rašne; Rašne’s); 2- inhabitant of Etruria; 3- Etruscan (language).
Rašnal /rashÉ™nal/ = 1- Etruscan (adj.); 2- rational?

27- I = of.
In Albanian: i = 1- article (in genitive case for masc. nouns); 2- short form of the personal pronouns (third person): in dative for the singulars and in accusative for the plurals, eg:
– A i di ti ç’jane ekuacionet ? = do you have idea what the equations are?
– Po, i di = yes, I know them (I have idea).

28- Pa = 1- Un-, dis-, (prefix, used to describe the opposite of a process);
2- Without.
In Albanian: pa = 1- un-, dis-, (prefix, used to describe the opposite or reverse of a process); 2- without.
In Italian and Greek: patema (see also Albanian them), paura (see also Etruscan ura), πάθη (see also Etruscan θe and θi), etc., etc.
In Albanian: njeri pa nder = someone who panders, dishonest one.
It means (literally) = a man without honor.

29- Ama = 1- been (p.p of ame = am); 2- may, optional mood of ame, compare with amen (used as an auxiliary of prediction).
This Etruscan word (ame) survives in many European languages.
In Greek: είμαι = am;
In English: am;
In Albanian: jam /iam/ = am; etc..

30- χen, χin = enters.
In Gheg Albanian: hin = enters.
In standard Albanian: hyn = enters.

31- Naper = through.
In Gheg Albanian: naper = through;
In standard Albanian: nëpër = through.

32- χi = 1- grace (masc.); 2- he (pronoun, third person, singular; masc.).
In Albanian: hir = grace (masc.); Hi, Hy = He (referring to God, masc.);
In Gheg Albanian: hai/ai = he.
In English: he = pronoun (third person, singular; masc.), sb. who is not present (masc.).
In Turkish: Hu = He (referring to God);
In Albanian: hie /hie/= grace; vision; beauty; shadow, ghost (fem.).
In Etruscan: χi = 1- grace (masc.), 2- he; hie = 1- grace (fem.), 2- she?

33- Θur = knit; build/ing (n&v); body; troop.
In Albanian: thur = knit, build, assemble (v).
Thur fjalë = to say (to build sentences);
Thur gardhin = to build the fence.
Thur bluzën = to knit the blouse.
From PIE *tere- “to cross over, pass through, overcome”.
It relates with English “tress”, “thorp”, “through”, “troop”, Proto Germanic *thurpa-;
It relates also with Albanian “turp” (shame) i.e. sth which is linked to the body (as opposed of to the spirit).

34- i Velθina-θuraš = of the Velthina’s body. See θur.

35- Araš = golden.
In Albanian: Ar = gold; art/artë = golden (we’ll see later there are many Etruscan adjectives ending in –aš).
In Italian: oro = gold;
In French: or = gold; Etc..

IV- Peraš cem ul, mlescul.

36- Peraš = 1- utside; 2- beyond.
In Grek: πέρα = beyond. The mechanism looks like: πέρα’s (of beyond).
In Gheg Albanian: periasht = outside;
In standard Albanian: përjashta = outside.

37- Cem = have (first person, plural).
In Gheg Albanian: kem = have (first person, plural).
In Greek: έχουμε = have (first person, plural).

38- Ul = sit (down); lay (down); drop (down).
In Albanian: ul = sit (down); lay (down), drop (down).
Etruscan cem ul as well as Gheg Albanian kem ul means: (we) are seated.

39- Mlescul = together.
In Albanian: mpleksur, mbledhur = gathered.

V- Zu ci enesci epl tu laru Auleši, Velθinaš arznal clenši.

40- Zu = began (third person, singular), p.t. of ze = begin, catch, occupy.
In Gheg Albanian: zu = began (third person, singular);
In standard Albanian: zuri = began (3-rd pers. singl.).

41- Ci /ki/ = this; that.
In Albanian ki/ky = this.
In Italian: chi = this, that, who, whom. Etc..

42- Enesci /eneski/ = the priest, the prince, the first (def. form of enesc = priest).
In Greek: ena = one;
In Albanian: niešc (njëshk) = first.

43- Epl /epəl/ = 1- high, 2- old.
In Albanian: 1- epr = upper; super; 2- epur = bent, scooped (with age);
In Tabula Cortonensis: epruš ame = I’m older. See below the word eplc /eplÉ™k/.

44- Tu = to.
In Gheg Albanian: tu = to.

45- Laru (tu laru) = laud (to laud, to appraise); heighten.
In Gheg Albanian: tu lartu/tu lavdu = to laud.
In standard Albanian: lartoj/lëvdoj = laud.
In Gheg: tu lëru = “to earth up”, “to plow the land”.

Aule = a man’s name.
Auleš = caressing form of Aule.
Auleši = def. form of Auleš.

46- Arznal /arzənal/ = 1- rational?; 2- versed? (adj).
In Gheg Albanian: arsy = ration.
In standard Albanian: arësye = ration.
In Greek: αρσενικÏŒς = virile.

47- Clenši = 1- the boy, the son; 2- the offspring; Indef.: clenš.
In Gheg Albanian: klinshi/klishi = the animal’s offspring (masc.).
In standard Albanian: klyshi/këlyshi = the animal’s offspring (masc.).
Klish/këlysh kurve = son of prostitute (son of bitch).

VI- Θi i θil šcuna cenu, eplc felic.

48- Θi, θil = 1- tell; 2- say.
In Italian: di’; dire = say;
In Albanian: 1- thirr; thirrje = call, appeal (n&v); 2- them = say;
In Greek: διηγούμα = tell; πάθη = suffer (see Etruscan pa nr. 28).
Θi i θil = while speaking (expression). Literally it means: say of saying.

49- Šcuna = went (third person, plural).
In Gheg Albanian: shkun = went (third person, plural);
In standard Albanian: shkuan = went (third person, plural).

50- Cenu = here.
In Albanian: ketu/këtu = here.
In Italian: qua, qui = here.

51- Eplc /eplək/ = old man.
In Albanian: plak = old man. See epl /epəl/.

52- Felic = 1- son, 2- child (masc.).
In Albanian: felik, filik = kitten, bud.
In Greek: φιλαράκος = bud, buddy.
Etruscan felic is an adjective noun: fel (or fil) + ic (the suffix –ic is used to form adjectives. Eg: Afric and Baltic are adjective nouns, which in Albanian mean: afr/afër = near, close and balt/baltë = mud. So, Afric = close, near (adj.) and Baltic = mudy).
In Albanian: fill = 1- thread; 2- alone (meaning one); 3- at once; zë fill = come up;
Filloj = begin; fillim = beginning, start.
In Italian: filo = thread.
In Greek: βελονιάζω = thread.
In Italian: figlio/a = son/daughter.
In Albanian: bir/bijë = son/daughter;
In Turkish: bir = one.

VII- Larθal, š’Afuneš clen, θunχul θe falaš.

53- Clen = 1- boy, son; 2- offspring; 3- successor, descendant.

54- Θunχúl = hears;
Θúnχul = sound (n).
In Albanian: tíngull = sound (n).
In Gheg Albanian: digχión = hears;
In standard Albanian: dëgjón = hears (dëgjoj = “hear” first pers. singl.).
Compare with:
Latin: = dingua;
English: = tongue, etc.

55- Θu = say (second person, singular).
In Gheg Albanian: thu = say (v. second person, singular);
In standard Albanian: thuaj = say (second person, singular).

56- Θe = say (n&v).
In Albanian: them = say (v. first person, singular; thenie/thënie = say (n).
In Gheg Albanian: thej = 1- reflect (first person, singl.); thyj = brake.
Thej dritën = (I) reflect the light; kthej = return, bend, bring back, turn, etc.
Albanian them (I say) is developed as a reflexive verb of Etruscan θe, literally it means ‘I reflect myself’.
Etruscan words θe, θi, θil, θu, θa survive in:
Gheg Albanian thu = say;
Albanian them = I say; thirrje = call (n); tha = said (third person, singular);
Italian di, dire = say;
English tell etc., etc..
Etruscan word θe (or θi) survives in: Θέμα, θεωρία, θέατρο, text, thesis, etc..

57- Falaš = of words, wordy.
In Gheg Albanian:
fialash = of words, wordy.
In standard Albanian:
fialësh/fjalësh = of words, wordy.
In Etruscan:
fal = 1-word (n&v); 2- forgive/ness;
fala = 1- def. of fal; 2- plur. of fal;
falat = the words;
falše = wordily; false.
In Albanian:
fal = 1- forgive; 2- give for free; 3- thank (n&v); të fala = thanks;
të falat = the thanks; falas = for free.
fial/fjalë = word/s; fiala/fjala = the word; fjalët = the words.
falem (“I pray”, literally it means “I fall/bend myself”) is developed as a reflexive verb of Etruscan/Albanian fal (from PIE *phol- fall, bend).
In Portuguese: falar = speak.
In Gaelic: falar = speak.

VIII- Χie m’ fušl e Velθina.

χie = vision; beauty; grace; shadow; ghost (fem.). See χi (masc.).
In Albanian: hie/hije = grace; vision; beauty; shadow; ghost (fem.).
In Greek: σκιά = ghost; shadow.

IX- Xin θa cap, e mu ni clet, ma su.

58- χin = enters.
In Albanian: hin/hyn = enters.

59- Θa = In Albanian: ta (short form of the personal pronoun, third person, singular). In Albanian: ta kap = to catch (him/her/it).

60- Cap = 1- catch, hold, contain.
In Albanian: kap = catch, hold, contain; kup/kupë = cup; kuptoj = understand;
kaptoj = overcome (v) etc., etc..
In Gheg Albanian: kop/kap = catch, hold, contain.
Etruscan word cap survives in many European languages (as a wordroot which saves it’s semantic value).
In Italian: capace, capire, caparra, captare, coppa etc., etc.; English: cop, cup, occupate, cap, capable, capacity, captive, captor, keep, capital etc., etc.
In Turkish: kapak, kapiş, kapı, kapmak, etc.

61- Mu = just.
In Albanian: mu = just.

Ni = in; on.
In Gheg: ne/ni = in; on.

62- Clet = head.
In Gheg Albanian: kret (in some areas: kryt) = head; kreti/kryti = def. of kret (masc.).
kre/kry = head; upper part of sth;
krea = the head (fem.).
Krej/kryj = I do (consciously); to perform, to carry out, to complete (to do smth consciously, i.e. by using the head ); Literally it means ‘head’ (v), ‘I do what I think by my own head’.
kreoi/krioj = to create; kreies/kries = creature; kreit/krejt = quite (from the beginning to the end);
krime/kryme = done (consciously done).
In standard Albanian: krye = head (def. kreu, masc.); upper part of sb/sth.
Kryej = to perform, to carry out, to complete (consciously); krioj/krijoj = to create; kries/krijesë = creature; kreit/krejt = quite (from the beginning to the end).
Kryer = done (consciously done), compare with creare (Albanian lacks the infinitive).
There is a great difference between kryj/kryej (I do consciously) and bëj (‘I do’, ‘I make’).
If you have to apologise for smth wrong, you can say “më falni, e bëra pa dashje” (sorry, unintentionally done) but it’d be a nonsense to say “më falni, e kreva pa dashje”.
In Slavics: глава, голова etc. (head).
There are numerous words in the modern European languages as well as in ancient Greek and Latin which contain the wordroot kre/kry (cre-/cri-) = head, upper part of sb/sth.
In Italian: creare, credere, crescere, crimine, cresta, cretinata, critica, criterio etc.,
In Greek: κριτής, κριμα, κριτική, κρίσιμος, κριτήριο, κρίνο etc., etc..

63- Ma = but.
In Italian: ma = but;
In Albanian: ama = but;

64- Su = can’t.
In Gehg Albanian: su/sun = can’t.
In standard Albanian: s’mund = can’t.

X- Naper šranc zlθi i falšti Velθina.

65- Šranc = the act of shrinking back (n).
In Albanian: shtankie/shtangie = the act of shrinking back; shmang = avoid, deviate.

66- Zlθi /zÉ™lθi/ = voice (v).
In Albanian: zëthi /zÉ™θi/ = the gentle voice; in a gentle voice.

67- Falšti = spoke (third person, singular). I falšti = spoke to (him/her);
In Gheg Albanian: folshti = spoke (third person, singular);
In standard Albanian: foli = spoke (third person, singular); I foli = spoke to (him/her).

XI- Xut naper penezš, ma su.

68- χut = confuse (n&v).
In Gheg Albanian: hut = to confuse.
In standard Albanian: hutoj = confuse (v).
In Albanian: mos u huto! = don’t be confused!

69- Penezš /peneÊ’/ = ghost, phantasm; vision. See pa/pen.

XII- Ac ni na! – clel Afuna.

70- Ac = 1- near; here about (see aci); 2- look! (similar with Italian ecco).
In Latin: hac = here about;
Etruscan “Ac ni na” means (literally) = “Any one here”.

71- Aci = there.
In Greek: εκεί = there.

72- Ni = 1- one; 2- in.
In Gheg Albanian: ni = 1- one; 2- in;
In standard Albanian: nji = one; në = in, on.

73- Na = any.
In Gheg Albanian: na/no = any;
In standard Albanian: ndo = any.

74- Clel = call/s (may be just calls).
In Albanian: clith = cry/s; call/s.
In Greek: κλήση = call.

XIII- Velθina m’ ler zinia.

75- ler = lets.
In Gheg Albanian: len = lets;
In imperative: m’ler të fle! = let me sleep!
In standard Albanian: le = let/s.
Etruscan m’ ler means (literally) = lets me.
76- Zinia = the blackness (in accusative).
In Albanian: i zi = black (masc.);
e zezë = black (fem.);
zi = mourning, crises (literally it means ‘blackness’).
zia = def. of zi (literally it means ‘the blackness’)
zinë = mourning, crises (in accusative).
Modern Albanian lacks the noun for “blackness”.

XIV- Inte ma mer cnl.

77- Inte = again, still.
In Albanian: ende = still, again.
Etruscan inte may be the wordroot of intention.

78- Ma = In Albanian it is a proclitic and enclitic form of the personal pronoun (first person, singular), ex: ma mer/merma = take it for/from me.
In Greek: μου.

79- Mer = takes.
In Albanian: mer = take/s (second and third person, singular).

80- Cnl /kənəl/ = move (n&v).
Short (or colloquial) form of Etruscan cenu le (cenu means here and le
means let, leave).
In Albanian: leviz/lëviz = move (le = leave, let; and: viz = line, trace).
Etruscan cnl may be the etymology of canal.

XV- Velθina zia, š’aten e tesne.

zia = dark (adv.); unvisible.
In Albanian: i zi = black; zi = mourning (literally it means ‘blackness’); zia = the mourning (the blackness).

81- Aten = then, again.
In Gheg Albanian: at’her; at’hera = then.
In standard Albanian: atëherë = then (sometimes “ahera”).
This is a compound word: atë+herë meaning that+time.
In ancient Greek: είτα = then.

XVI- E ca Velθina-θuraš! – θa ura, χe lutes ne Rašne.

E = article.
In Albanian: article (in genitive case for fem. nouns); 2- short form of personal pronouns (third person): in dative for the singulars and in accusative for the plurals, eg: A e di ti Italishten? = Do you understand (have idea) Italian (language)?
Po, e di = Yes, I do (it).
In other European languages: Does not survive as an article but is used in numerous words, playing almost the same role as e in Albanian, eg:
In Italian: missione – emissione, motivo – emotivo, liminare – eliminare, dizione – edizione, etc., etc.. Compare the Albanian word:
e dukur /e dukur/ (or “i dukur”) = handsome, conspicuous, with Latin
word: educare.

82- E ca = it belongs to (him/her/it).
In Albanian: e ka = it belongs to (him/her/it).

Θa = said (third person, singular).
In Albanian: tha = said (third person, singular).

83- Ura = 1- def. of ur; 2- pl. of ur.
Ur = 1- right one; 2- way (right way); 3- noble; 4- priest; 5- ideal one; 6- oracle.
In Albanian: ur/ë = 1- a right linking way; 2- bridge.
Ura = 1- def. of ur/ë; 2- pl. of ur/ë.
It is the wordroot of these Albanian words:
uroj = wish (v); The literal meaning of Albanian uroj is bridge (v). In other words it means “to link (to bridge) the present situation with the desired one”.
urim = wish (n);
urt/urtë = right, wisely, quietly, correctly;
urata = the priest, the bless;
i urt/i urtë = right one, wise one, noble one (adj.), correct, quiet;
In standard Albanian: urtësi = righteousness ; correctness, nobility.
In Gheg Albanian: urtni = righteousness, correctness, nobility;
In Greek: ωραία = fine, beautifully (adv.); ορθά = right, straight; ορθή = correct.
In almost all the modern European languages: ortho- meaning right, correct.
It survives in almost all European languages in the interjection hurray! (ura, hurra,
urra, hourra etc.).
There are numerous words in modern European languages as well as in ancient Greek and Latin which contain Etruscan ur:
Ural, γέφυρα = bridge, ουρανÏŒς = sky (ideal world), ορίζοντας = horizon, orient,
oracle, oral, orator, origin, etc., etc., etc..

χe = and (when the antecedent word ends in vowel, or e when it ends in consonant).
In Albanian and in Italian: e = and;
In Greek: και /khe/ = and.

84- Lutes = prayed (third person, singular).
In Gheg Albanian: luteš = prayed (third person, singular);
In standard Albanian: lutësh = prayed (third person, singular);
lus/lut = pray, implore (first person, singular); i lus = pray to (him/her); implore to;
ju lutem! = please!
Etruscan word: lut, lus (i lus) may be the etymology of: i-lluso, i-llusion.
In Turkish: lütfen! = please!

85- Ne = in, on.
In Gheg Albanian: ne = in, on;
In standard Albanian: në = in, on.

86- Rašne = 1- God; Literally it means: Ra Sign.
In Albanian: shenjë = sign (n); shenja = def. of shenjë.

XVII- Ce i tesn, š’te iš Rašneš Χimθ, špelθ uta šcuna; Afuna mena χen.

87- Ce /ke/ = 1- just; 2- that (both pron. and conj.); 3- what …!
In Geg Albanian: ke = just; qe/qi = that (both pron. and conj.);
In Italian: che = that (both pron. and conj.). Etc..

88- Tesn (i tesn) = now.
In Gheg Albanian: i tesh/i tash = now.
In standard Albanian: tani, tash, tanimë, tashmë = now.

89- χimθ = at Him?
In Albanian: Hi, Hy = He (referring to God).

90- Špel = cave.
In Albanian: shpell/shpellë = cave.

91- Špela = 1- def. of Špel (fem.); 2- pl. of Špel.
In Albanian: shpella = 1- the cave (fem.); 2- caves.
In Greek: σπηλιά = cave.
It’s the case to say that špela is the etymology of Gheg Albanian word
shpeia/shpëia = the house.
In Greek: σπίτι = house;
In standard Albanian: shtëpia (in colloquial: shpia) = 1- the house; 2- houses.

92- Špelθ = at the cave.
In Albanian: te shpella = at the cave;
Dialectal Albanian: shpellt = at the cave.
It is the case to say that Etruscan špelθ or dialectal Albanian shpellt is the etymology of Albanian word shpeit/shpejt = 1- quick! Hurry up! 2- quickly, fast. It is quite comprehensible; in ancient times, especially when in danger: špelt! = at the cave! In today’s Albanian: shpejt! = quick! Hurry up!
This word survives in many European languages: speed, spedare etc..

93- Uta = they.
In Albanian: ata = they.

mena = inside, in.
In Gheg Albanian: mrena = in, inside;
In standard Albanian: brenda = in, inside.
Etruscan mena relates to Gheg word menia (the mind).
In standard Albanian: mendja = the mind.

χen = enters.
In Albanian: hin/hyn = enters.

XVIII- Naper ci cnl – χare, utu še Velθina š’atena.

94- χare = delight, joy.
In Albanian: hare = delight, joy.
In Greek: χαρά = joy.
In English: charity, charisma, charm.
In Italian: carino, carisma, carita, caro, etc., etc..

95- Utu = there; near.
In Albanian: aty = there, near.

96- Še = sees.
In Gheg Albanian: she/shef = sees; sho/shof = see (first person, singular).
In standard Albanian: sheh = see/s (second and third person,
singular); shoh = see (first person, singular).

XIX- Zu ci enesci i pa špela ne θi fulumχva.

97- Pa, pen = saw (v., third person, singular). I pa = (he, Afuna) saw (them, the stars).
These are aorists (see Etruscan še = sees);
In Albanian: pa = saw (aorist of shoh/sho/shof = I see).
The same as with cem/ceha = have (first person, plural) or ca/cen = has (third person, singular).
The same as in modern Gheg Albanian: both kem and kena mean have (first person, plural).
In Albanian: parë = seen (p.p. of shoh = see; the same in all persons).
In Gheg Albanian: pamun/pamë = seen (in all persons).
There are numerous words in modern European languages as well as in ancient Greek and Latin which are formed by the Etruscan wordsroot pe, pen, phen; pa, pan, (or par), phan, (which are aorists of sho/še = see/s):
phenomen, panorama,phantasm, pene(n)trate, pensare, parata, pantheon, phantom, pania, panic/o, etc., etc., etc..

98- Fulumχva = stars.
In Albanian pullumba/pëllumba means doves (compare with Greek πελειάδες pl. of πελέιας = ‘dove’).

XX- Špel θi, rene θi.

99- Rene = cloud.
In Gheg Albanian: renë = cloud; rena = def. of renë (singl.); rrenë = lie, cheater;
rrena = def. of rrenë.
In standard Albanian: re = cloud; reja = def. of re.

XXI- Ešt ac Velθina; ac ilun, e tu ru ne šcu ne Zea.

100- Ešt = is.
In Gheg Albanian: esht/asht = is.
In standard Albanian: është = is.
In French = est; etc..

ac = near; there.

101- Ilun = shines; illuminates.
In Albanian: yll (in some areas: ill) = star (n).

102- Tu = to.
In Gheg Albanian: tu = to.

103- Ru (tu ru) = to guard, to take care of; to save; to keep (in memory).
In Gheg Albanian: tu ru = to guard, to take care of, to keep (in memory).

104- Ne = we, us.
In Albanian: ne = we, us.
In Italian: noi = we, us.

105- Šcu (tu šcu) = go (to go).
In Gheg Albanian: tu shku = to go.
In standard Albanian: shkoj = go.

106- Zea = the God (fem.), definite form of Ze = God.
In ancient Greek: Zeus = God.
In Romanian: Zeu = God.
In Albanian: zot = God.

XXII- Zu ci enesci: A θu mi cš Afunaš, pen θ’na ama Velθina?

107- A = Interrogative particle, like a in Albanian, eg: A më kupton = do you understand me?

108- Θu = say (second person, singular).
In Gheg Albanian: thu = say (second person, singular);
In standard Albanian: thuaj = say (second person, singular).

109- Mi = me.

110- Cš /kÉ™š/ = who.
In Albanian: kush = who.

111- Pa, pen = saw (v., third person, singular). See above pa/pen.

θ’ = short form of the Etruscan te.

XXIII- Afuna-θur u ni ei n’ zer i una cla, θil θunχulθl.

112- Ni (u ni) = felt (was affected), third person singular.
In Gheg Albanian: nij = to feel (first person, singular); nin = feels; e niu = felt (third person, singular); u ni = was affected (third person, singular).
In standard Albanian: ndij/ndiej = feel (first person, singular); ndien = feels; ndieu = felt (third person singular);
U ndie = was affected (in Albanian, u is a proclitic and enclitic form of the personal pronoun, in that case in third person, singular).

113- N’ = in.
In Albanian: n’/në = in.

114- Zer = voice (definite form: zeri).
In standard Albanian: zëri = the voice (def. of zë).

115- Una = one (fem.).
In Italian: una/uno.

116- Cla = cry (n&v).
In Albanian: klithm/ë = cry (n).
In Gheg Albanian: kla = cry (n); klaj = cry(v).
In standard Albanian: qaj = cry (v).
In Greek: κλαίω = cry.

θunχulθl = soundy.
In Albanian: tingullt = soundly; tingullor = soundy; tingulltar = soundy one.

XXIV- Iχ ca ceχa ziχuχe.

117- Iχ = particle, used before some pronouns and adverbs.
In Gheg Albanian: i cët = this/that; i tu = here; i ta = these (masc.).

118- Iχ ca = that.
In Gheg Albanian: i kët = that.

119- Ceχa = have (first person, plural).
In Gheg Albanian: kena, kem = have (first person, plural).
In standard Albanian: kemi = have (first person, plural).
In Greek: έχουμε = have (first person, plural).
In Tabula Cortonensis: cevaš = have (first person, plural).

120- Ziχuχe = 1- blackened; 2- the writing.
In Gheg Albanian: 1- nzihun= blackened.
In standard Albanian: nxirë = blackened.
Ziχuχe is the p. p. of ziχ = 1- to black; 2- to write.

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